Model Atom

13 Sep 2009

atom model

Di alam ini terdapat 90 buah unsur alami dalam keadaan cair, padat, dan gas. Dan masih ada 15 unsur lagi dalam yaitu unsur sintetik.


Teori dan model atom yang dikemukakan para ilmuwan diantaranya:
1. John Dalton (1766-1844)
Teori atomnya:
atom: partikel kecil yang tidak dapat dibagi lagi
atom suatu unsur yang tidak dapat berubah menjadi atom unsur lain
dua atom atau lebih yang berasal dari unsur-unsur yang berlainan dapat membentuk molekul
atom-atom suatu unsur semuanya serupa
pada suatu reaksi kimia, atom-atom berpisah tetapi kemudian bergabung lagi dengan susunan yang berbeda dari semula. Tapi massa keseluruhan tetap dan atom-atom bergabung menurut perbandingan tertentu.
Bila 2 macam atom berbentuk 2 macam senyawa atau lebih maka perbandingan atom-atom yang sama dalam kedua senyawa itu sederhana.
2. J.J Thomson (1856 1940)
- pada tahun 1897 menemukan elektron yang menjadi bagian dari atom.
- Tahun 1904 mengemukakan model atom berbentuk seperti roti kismis. Sebuah atom berbentuk bundar, mempunyai muatan positip yang tersebar merata ke seluruh atom. Muatan ini dinetralkan oleh elektronelektron yang tersebardi antara muatan listrik positip itu.
3. Ernest Rutherford
1. atom terdiri dari sebuah inti atom yang sangat kecil dan bermuatan positip.
2. Inti atom dikelilingi oleh elektron-elektron yang bermuatan negatip
3. Susunan inti dan elektron-elektron atom adalah seperti susunan tata surya .
4. Partikel-partikel penyusun inti atom adalah proton dan netron.
5. muatan listrik proton sama dengan muatan listrik elektron, hanya berbeda jenis.
6. Atom bersifat netral.
Kecuali atom Hidrogen, inti atom selalu terdiri dari partikel-partikel proton dan netron. Proton dan netron disebut juga nukleon, karena merupakan partikel penyusun inti (inti = nukleus). Karena proton itu bermuatan positip, sedangkan netron tidak bermuatan, maka inti atom bermuatan positip. Jumlah proton dan jumlah netron tergantung pada jenis unsur.
Elektron-elektron atom bergerak mengelilingi intinya menurut lintasan tertentu yang disebut orbit atau kulit atom. Atom-atom yang mempunyai beberapa elektron maka dalam mengitari intinya, orbitnya berbentuk lingkaran dan ada yang elips. Lintasan ini tidak hanya dalam bidang datar tapi terletak dalam bidang ruang (3 dimensi). Jika lintasan elektron digambarkan sebagai kulit-kulit atom maka sejumlah unsur itu mempunyai kulit yang berbedabeda.
Bentuk kulit atom adalah:
Kulit ke-1 atau kulit K: paling banyak ditempati 2 elektron
Kulit ke-2 atau kulit L: paling banyak ditempati 8 elektron
Kulit ke-3 atau kulit M: paling banyak ditempati 18 elektron
Kulit ke-4 atau kulit N: paling banyak ditempati 32 elektron
Kulit ke-5 atau kulit O: paling banyak ditempati 32 elektron
Kulit ke-6 atau kulit P: paling banyak ditempati 18 elektron
Kulit ke-7 atau kulit Q: paling banyak ditempati 2 elektron
Energi ikat adalah: energi yang dimiliki oleh inti atom untuk mengikat agar inti atom tidak pecah. Proton bermuatan positip dan netron tidak bermuatan jika keduanya didekatkan akan terjadi gaya tolak-menolak. Padahal inti atom berisi proton dan netron, berarti dalam inti atom juga terjadi gaya tolak menolak. Tapi karena gaya tolak-menolak ini lebih kecil daripada gaya yang mengikat antara nukleon (proton dan netron) maka inti atom tidak pecah.


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