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    Theories Related to Learning and Higher Order Thinking Skills

    No one has yet explained the process of thinking much better than Dewey (1933), who described it as a sequenced chaining of events. According to Dewey, this productive process moves from reflection to inquiry, then to critical thought processes that, in turn, lead to a conclusion that can be substantiated (p. 5) by more than personal beliefs and images. Thought can straighten out entanglements, clear obscurities, resolve confusion, unify disparities, answer questions, define problems, solve problems, reach goals, guide inferences, shape predictions, form judgments, support decisions, and end controversies. According to Dewey, thinking does not occur spontaneously but must be evoked by problems and questions or by some perplexity, confusion or doubt. The observations or data at hand cann
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    Critical Thinking

    Critical thinking is a complex and dynamic process that encourages different thinking skills, all of which can inform deep learning (Biggs 2003; Ramsden 2003) and complex learning (Elander et al. 2006). Both, deep and complex learning, reflect a learning process where a deep approach intend to understand the topic or subject matter is taken through questioning, researching, comparing and contrasting of the familiar and unfamiliar (Biggs 2003; Ramsden 2003). Thinking skills form the basis for developing critical subject content knowledge as, regardless of the actual subject areas, the development and furthering of thinking skills lead to a more critical and thus advanced understanding of ones subject (Van den Brink-Budgen 2000). In other words, critical thinking is a continued questioning
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    Higher Order Thinking Skills

    Several major concepts relevant to the higher order thinking processes are to follow, based on three assumptions about thinking and learning. First, the levels of thinking cannot be unmeshed from the levels of learning; they involve interdependent, multiple components and levels. Second, whether or not thinking can be learned without subject matter content is only a theoretical point. In real life, students will learn content in both community and school experiences, no matter what theorists conclude, and the concepts and vocabulary they learn in the prior year will help them learn both higher order thinking skills and new content in the coming year. Third, higher order thinking involves a variety of thinking processes applied to complex situations and having multiple variables. Contex
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    Strategies for Problem-Solving Success

    Problem-solving skills are important in everyday life, in school, and in the workplace. Some problems, like deciding whether to walk or ride your bike, are easier to solve than others. In each case, however, you develop a process to help you make up your mind. In physics, understanding a concept is more important than simply doing the math; hence, the need for creativity and adaptability. Framing A Problem Framing a problem is a way to set parameters (important boundaries) and organize them in a way best suited to a particular problem. There is rarely only one way to frame a problem, and how you do so depends on each situation; you must determine which methods work best for you, and for each problem. Often, simply framing a problem will help the solution to become apparent to you. Fram
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    Thinking about Science, Technology, Society and the Environment

    Thinking Science In the middle of the twentieth century, scienti?c progress seemed to go forward in leaps and bounds. The presence of ?gures like Albert Einstein gave science in general, and physics in particular, an almost mystical aura. Too often physics was seen as a pure study isolated from the real world. Contrary to that image, science is now viewed as part of the world and has the same responsibilities, perhaps even greater, to the world as any other form of endeavour. Everything science does has a lasting impact on the world. Part of this course is to explore the symbiotic relationship that exists between science, technology, society and the environment (STSE). To many people, science and technology are almost one and the same thing. There is no doubt that they are very closel


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