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    Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills

    Higher order thinking skills include critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, and creative thinking (Lewis & Smith, 1993). They encompass the skills defined in Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, 1956); the hierarchy of learning capabilities propounded by Briggs and Wager (1981), Gagn (1985), and Gagn, Briggs, and Wager (1988); and a number of other less well-known conceptualizations. An example is Gubbins Matrix of Critical Thinking Skills (as cited in Legg, 1990), which includes (1) problem solving, (2) decision making, (3) inferencesinductive and deductive reasoning, (4) divergent thinking, (5) evaluative thinking, and (6) philosophy and reasoning. Assessment methods for measuring higher order thinking include multiple-choice items, multiple-choice it


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