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    Assessment of Higher Order Thinking Skills

    Higher order thinking skills include critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, and creative thinking (Lewis & Smith, 1993). They encompass the skills defined in Blooms Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (Bloom, 1956); the hierarchy of learning capabilities propounded by Briggs and Wager (1981), Gagn (1985), and Gagn, Briggs, and Wager (1988); and a number of other less well-known conceptualizations. An example is Gubbins Matrix of Critical Thinking Skills (as cited in Legg, 1990), which includes (1) problem solving, (2) decision making, (3) inferencesinductive and deductive reasoning, (4) divergent thinking, (5) evaluative thinking, and (6) philosophy and reasoning. Assessment methods for measuring higher order thinking include multiple-choice items, multiple-choice it
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    Theories Related to Learning and Higher Order Thinking Skills

    No one has yet explained the process of thinking much better than Dewey (1933), who described it as a sequenced chaining of events. According to Dewey, this productive process moves from reflection to inquiry, then to critical thought processes that, in turn, lead to a conclusion that can be substantiated (p. 5) by more than personal beliefs and images. Thought can straighten out entanglements, clear obscurities, resolve confusion, unify disparities, answer questions, define problems, solve problems, reach goals, guide inferences, shape predictions, form judgments, support decisions, and end controversies. According to Dewey, thinking does not occur spontaneously but must be evoked by problems and questions or by some perplexity, confusion or doubt. The observations or data at hand cann


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